Jumat, 28 Agustus 2009

BioFuels, The Answer to High Fuel Prices

Biofuels, simply put, are fuels that are derived from agricultural products. Biofuels are a renewable source of energy that can be used in many applications, from fueling your vehicle, to generating electricity and heating your home.Recently, biofuels have been attracting attention from various sectors. Biofuels are considered to be 'carbon-neutral', which simply means that the amount of carbon dioxide which is created when burned, is equal to the amount of carbon dioxide used during growing. It is hoped to be a 'green' alternative to petroleum, which has generated a lot of interest from investors and different countries around the World.
Types of BioFuelsEthanolEthanol is a fuel derived largely from corn and sugar cane, although it can also be made from other sources of sugar as well.Currently, ethanol is largely used as an additive to Gasoline, which could cut are dependence on foreign oil, and has the potential to replace gasoline altogether.Ethanol can also be 'home-brewed' and there are many products available online to assist an individual in that dream of brewing their own gas.
Ethanol, does however face some hurdles before it becomes a true replacement for Oil. Considerations such as food supply should take precedence, as much of the stock that is used is derived from food sources. With expected production to e in the billions of gallons, we must take care not to create more problems in the future than solve them. Ethanol can be made from plant sources without starving people, but this will take research and commitment on the part of Government and Industry officials
BioDieselBio diesel is a term used to describe various types of esters derived from vegetable oils. The most common is rape seed oil, however other oils can e used. Some examples are waste vegetable oil from a fryer, soybean oil, sunflower oil and palm oil. Bio diesel is usually made from either the methyl ester or ethyl ester of the base oil.
Bio Diesel use around the World varies. In Brazil, a country already with a huge lead, recently opened a bio diesel refinery, further lessening it's dependence on Oil. In the U.S., Bio Diesel is becoming an attractive alternative due to rising Gas prices. Bio Diesel's biggest impact would be in the transportation sector, but it can also be applied to any machine that uses Diesel.
AlgaeOilAnother source, and quite amazing source, for Bio Fuels, is Algae. Algae Oil can be grown in any water source and can be a great source of base materials for both Ethanol and Bio Diesel production. Algae production in the U.S. is practically non-existent. Algae has a great potential as a source of raw material. The problems concerning food supply associated with producing Ethanol doesn't matter for Algae. Investment in this source should be perused as the pay-off will be immense.
We are now facing a Global Fuel crisis. Rising fuel prices have the potential to impact global society and security in a very negative way. We must now seek an interim solution to this potentially devastating problem until Hydrogen is perfected as a source of energy. Failure to do this could doom future generations to hardship and misery. The time is now to act.

Kamis, 06 Agustus 2009

Solar Energy

Solar energy is the radiant light and heat from the Sun that has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar radiation along with secondary solar resources such as wind and wave power, hydroelectricity and biomass account for most of the available renewable energy on Earth. Only a minuscule fraction of the available solar energy is used.
Solar power provides electrical generation by means of heat engines or photovoltaics. Once converted, its uses are limited only by human ingenuity. A partial list of solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture, potable water via distillation and disinfection, daylighting, hot water, thermal energy for cooking, and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes.
Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute sunlight. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors (with electrical or mechanical equipment) to convert sunlight into useful outputs. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air.

Kamis, 11 September 2008

Bio Ethanol sebagai Sumber Energi Terbarukan

Bio Ethanol dapat dihasilkan dari proses fermentasi hasil pertanian yang mengandung gula, semisal jagung, singkong dll. Tetapi untuk mengolah jagung atau singkong tersebut harus melalui tahapan yang lebih panjang.

Cara lebih cepat menghasilkan Bio Ethanol menggunakan fermentasi tetes tebu, yang notabene nya adalah limbah produksi pabrik gula.

Tetes dicampur dengan air dengan perbandingan 1 bagian tetes dengan 2 bagian air. Setealh diaduk merata kemudian masukkan ragi. Ragi bisa mengguanakan ragi roti yang banyak dipakai untuk pembuatan roti.

Proses fermentasinya adalah an-aerob (tidak memerlukan udara), jadi harus dilakukan ditempat tertutup rapat. Saat fermentasi, selain ethanol juga dihasilkan gas CO2 yang harus dibuang. Lama Fermentasi bisa bervariasi biasanya 3 - 5 hari, biasanya ditandai dengan tidak lagi dihasilkan gas CO2.

Setelah proses fermentasi selesai, cairan fermentasi kemudian didistilasi, untuk menghasilkan ethanol yang lebih tinggi kadaranya. Hasil fermentasi biasanya 8 - 14 % saja. Jika distilasinya bagus, setelah pertama kali distilasi bisa langsung menghasilkan 90 - 95 %.

Untuk edisi berikutnya, akan saya gambarkan bagan tanki fermentasi dan kolom destilasi.
Mohon bersabar.

Minggu, 03 Agustus 2008

Energi Biogas untuk Listrik

Pengembangan teknologi biogas yang memanfaatkan kotoran sapi, terbukti layak secara ekonomis dan teknis. Hal ini dapat mendorong kemandirian energi bagi masyarakat, terutama peternak sapi.

Seperti diketahui belakangan ini, harga minyak yang melambung mengakibatkan PT. PLN mengalami kesulitan dalam memasok listrik, karena sebagian besar pembangkit masih menggunakan energi fosil.

Energi biogas dapat diperoleh dari air buangan rumah tangga, kotoran cair dari peternakan ayam, sapi dan babi, sampah organik dari pasar, industri makanan dan sebagainya.

Memproduksi biogas dapat memberikan berbagai manfaat antara lain :
1. Mengurangi pengaruh gas rumah kaca.
2. Mengurangi polusi bau
3. menghasilkan daya dan panas
4. memberikan hasil samping berupa pupuk, campuran makanan ternak, media tanam jamur, dan sebagainya.

Pada uji coba generator listrik berbahan bakar solar - biogas untuk menghasilkan listrik 3000 watt menunjukkan hasil yang memuaskan, dengan konsumsi solar - biogas 100 ml/jam dan 0,39 M3 biogass /kWh.

Kamis, 24 Juli 2008

Biogas Sebagai Alternative Energi Murah

Dengan meningkatnya harga minyak dunia, peningkatan konsumsi minyak dan pemanasan global telah menyebabkan kita untuk melihat kembali sumber - sumber energi alternative murah yang tersedia.

Salah satu dari energi alternative murah tersebut adalah energi Biogas.

Pada dasarnya biogas adalah gas yang dihasilkan oleh pemecahan secara biologis terhadap material organik tanpa kehadiran oksigen. Biogas berasal dari material organik dan merupakan salah satu jenis Bio Fuel.

Biogas dihasilkan oleh digestion anaerob atau fermentasi terhadap material yang dapat dipecah secara biologis seperti biomas, kotoran, limbah kota atau hasil pertanian. Tipe biogas ini menghasilkan methana dan karbon dioksida.

Tipe yang lain dari biogas adalah wood gas yang dihasilkan dari proses gasifikasi dari kayu atau biomas yang lain. Tipe biogas ini menghasilkan nitrogen, hidrogen dan karbon monooksida dengan sedikit methana.
Gas - gas methana, hidrogen dan karbon monooksida dapat dibakar atau dioksidasi dengan oksigen. Udara mengandung 21 persen oksigen. Pelepasan energi ini menghasilkan biogas yang dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar.

Biogas dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar murah di semua negara untuk kepentingan pemanasan seperti memasak. Biogas dapat juga dihasilkan dari fasilitas pengolahan limbah yang modern yang dapat dipakai untuk menjalanakan semua jenis mesin pemanas, untuk menghasilkan tenaga listrik atau mekanik.

Biogas adalah bahan bakar yang dapat diperbarui dan listrik yang dihasilkannya dapat digunakan untuk menarik subsidi energi di beberapa bagian dunia.

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